The Driver Risk Inventory-II, or DRI-II, was designed specifically for DUI/DWI offender assessment. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reviewed all major DUI/DWI offender tests and rated the DRI-II as the best. NHTSA is the highest federal authority in the DUI field. The DRI-II assesses offender truthfulness, quantifies alcohol and drug abuse severity, classifies substance abuse/dependency according to DSM-IV criteria, measures stress handling abilities and determines driver risk. The DRI-II has impressive reliability, validity and accuracy, which is reported in this webpage.
The Driver Risk Inventory-II, or DRI-II, is a brief, easily administered and automated (computer-scored and interpreted) DUI/DWI offender screening instrument or test. The DRI-II contains six scales that measure client truthfulness, driver risk, stress coping abilities, alcohol abuse severity and drug abuse severity while concurrently classifying offenders as substance abusers or substance dependent in accordance with DSM-IV criteria.
The DRI-II contains 6 separate scales (or measures) that are standardized on the DUI/DWI offender population. These include:
The DRI-II assesses attitudes and behaviors, yielding a DUI/DWI offender profile. Paper-pencil or on-screen test administration takes 25 minutes to complete, and tests are computer-scored with reports printed on-site within 2 ½ minutes.
The DRI-II was developed specifically for DUI/DWI offender evaluation. It is much more than just another alcohol or drug test; consequently, the DRI-II measures important behaviors missed by other tests.
The DRI-II Short Form is designed for use in high volume assessment settings, as an alternative to the DRI-II and in reading impaired DUI/DWI offender testing. Click on the following link to go to the DRI-II Short Form webpage.
Driver Risk Inventory-II Test Booklet
DRI-II test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 140 items (84 true/false, 56 multiple choice). This booklet is written at a high 5th grade to a low 6th grade level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the DRI-II. It takes 25 minutes, on average, for DUI/DWI offenders to complete the test. DRI-II test booklets are available in both English and Spanish.
"Over one million DUI/DWI offenders in the
|** Driver Risk Inventory-II **|
The DRI-II is available in Windows. Windows diskettes require a one-time computer setup procedure after which DRI-II data diskettes are used. Training manuals are provided, and new test users can be walked through these procedures over Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS's) telephone line.
Proprietary DRI-II diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print DRI-II reports on-site. Once a DRI-II account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. When all test applications are used, diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems where the test data and demographics are downloaded into the DRI-II database for subsequent research analysis. The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all client names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all test user names insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501). To review a DRI-II research study click on the DRI-II Research Study link.
The DRI-II system contains a proprietary database. Earlier, it was noted that all DRI-II used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems and the test data along with related demographics are downloaded into the DRI-II database. This database (over one million DRI and DRI-II tests) allows ongoing research and testing program summary capabilities that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality control. Test program summaries provide program self-evaluation.
Built-in Database: permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50 tests on a diskette are used, that diskette is returned to Behavior Data Systems, checked for any viruses and downloaded into the expanding DRI-II database. This proprietary database includes over one million DUI/DWI offenders. Advantages of a built-in database are many and include database (research) analysis and annual summary reports.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test database.
Returned DRI-II diskettes from an agency, department or state can be selected from the database for research and analysis. The DRI-II is restandardized annually on a state-by-state basis -- at no cost to users. Database analysis insures quality control. To review a research publication incorporating the DRI-II, click on this Nebraska Probation Department Research Publication link.
Similarly, returned diskettes can be summarized on a state, department or agency basis -- at no cost to users. Annual summary reports provide information for testing program self-evaluation. To review an Annual Report, click on this Annual Report link.
In summary, having all used DRI-II test data centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices in the DRI-II database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, frequency distributions, correlations, ANOVA, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations. We continue to study the effects of demographics and are undertaking recidivism prediction studies.
After downloading test data returned diskettes are destroyed.
As reported in Government Technology (Vol. 3, #5, May 1990), "NHTSA concluded the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI) was the best . . . It (DRI) appears to be by far the most carefully constructed test." And now, after years of research, the DRI has been improved. This improved test is called the DRI-II. To review an abstract of this National Highway Traffic Safety Administration publication, click on this NHTSA Publication link.
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually. An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this Annual Summary Report link.
The DRI-II has a built-in database that insures inclusion of all tests administered in a confidential (no names) manner. Over one million DUI/DWI offenders are represented in the DRI-II database. And, these reliability, validity and accuracy statistics are reported in the manual titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis has demonstrated that DRI-II scales maintain very high reliability coefficients, minimum interscale correlations and accuracy. To review a DRI-II study involving 11,832 DUI offenders click on the DRI-II Research Study link.
The internal consistencies (alpha coefficients) for DRI-II scales are reported below for 24,354 DUI offenders screened in the year 2002. This is one among many year 2002 samples.
The Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale is a classification scale based on DSM-IV criteria. In contrast, the Alcohol and Drugs Scales are measurement scales. They measure the severity of alcohol and drug abuse.
All DRI-II scales have alpha coefficients well above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and are highly reliable. All alpha coefficients are significant at the p<.001 level.
DRI-II research extends over 20 years. Many studies have been conducted on thousands (not just hundreds, but thousands) of DUI/DWI offenders using several validation methods.
Early studies used criterion measures and were validated with many other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L-Scale, MMPI F-Scale, Mortimer-Filkins, MacAndrews, experienced staff ratings, polygraph exams, etc. Much of this research is summarized in the "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Subsequently, many discriminant validity (first versus multiple offenders) and predictive validity (offenders having had alcohol or drug treatment versus non-treatment) database analyses support DRI-II validity.
DRI-II norms are based on DUI/DWI offenders who now exceed one million individuals. These norms are updated annually for each DRI-II scale. Separate norms are available for gender (males and females), ethnicity (Caucasian, Black and Hispanic) and geographic (state-by-state) regions. This database research is ongoing.
If interested in Driver Risk Inventory-II research, you can click on the DRI-II Research Study #1 link, which is also linked to other research studies, or click on the research links at the end of this webpage. There are three DRI-II research studies contained in this webpage. The links are referred to as Research Study #1, Research Study #2 and Research Study #3. A Nebraska Probation Department study is presented in the link Nebraska Probation Study #4. In addition, the document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings" is available from Behavior Data Systems. It contains over one million DUI/DWI offenders in the research summarized therein. This research document is over 100 pages long.
All DRI-II Short Form scales correlate significantly with corresponding DRI-II scales. The Stress Coping Abilities Scale was not included in the Short Form because of its length. If interested in the DRI-II Short Form, you can click on the following link to go to the DRI-II Short Form webpage.
Nebraska Probation Department's Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP) selection process was automated with Behavior Data Systems tests. These tests include the Driver Risk Inventory-II, SAQ-Adult Probation III, Domestic Violence Inventory, Sexual Adjustment Inventory and the ACDI-Corrections Version II. This research is reported in Edward C. Birkel and David L. Wegner's article (2000). "Accurate Intensive Supervision Probation Selection: Revisited." American Probation and Parole Association, Perspectives, Vol. 24, #4 Fall, pp. 18-21. To read this article click on the Perspectives Research Article link.
Fairness goes beyond reliability and validity. The term applies to test accuracy for demographic groups like age, gender, ethnicity (race) and education. Take an answer sheet, and then apply it to three ethnic groups, e.g., Caucasian, Black and Hispanic. If the test has been normed on these ethnic groups, each score will often be different, and that shows the test was normed for fairness. If the three test scores are always the same, it is likely that the test was not normed on ethnic groups. And, in that case, the test would be unfair or not accurate for different ethnic groups. The DRI-II has been normed on Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics, and these ethnic norms are reevaluated in the DRI-II's annual database analysis. This research is ongoing, and scale score equations are adjusted, as warranted, in the annual database analysis. The DRI-II is accurate and fair.
Independent researchers have conducted their own validation studies (e.g., Fred Marsteller, Emory University School of Medicine; Barry Leshowitz, Arizona State University; Edward Birkel and David Wegner, Nebraska Probation Department) and report impressive results. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) concluded the DRI-II was "by far the most carefully constructed" (DOT HS 807 475) of the major DUI/DWI offender tests. And, as reported in Government Technology (Vol. 3, #5, May 1990), "the Driver Risk Inventory was rated by NHTSA as the best." It is reasonable to conclude that the DRI-II is a reliable, valid, accurate and fair DUI/DWI assessment instrument or test.
An abstract of the NHTSA research project titled "Assessment of Classification Instruments Designed to Detect Alcohol Abuse" (DOT HS 807 475) can be read by clicking on the NHTSA Report link.
Some people advocate fully automated assessment. Behavior Data Systems does not. The DRI-II is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. When available, court records should be reviewed because they can contain important information that was not provided or was incorrectly provided by the DUI/DWI offender. Experienced evaluators should also interview the client. For these reasons, the following statement is contained on each DRI-II report: "DRI-II results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon DRI-II results. The DRI-II is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."
Truthfulness Scale: Identifies denial, problem minimization and attempts to fake good. It is now known that most DUI/DWI offenders attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The DRI-II Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness studies and experienced staff judgment. The DRI-II Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. In some respects, the DRI-II Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree or disagree with.
Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction. The DRI-II Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales. The Truth Correction equation then converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the DUI/DWI offender wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the offender is attempting to hide.
The Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale: Categorizes DUI/DWI offenders as substance abusers or substance dependent in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. Other DUI/DWI tests without this scale can not classify DUI/DWI offenders according to DSM-IV criteria. Such classification augments the Alcohol Scale and Drugs Scale severity of abuse measures. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) notes there are exceptions to DSM-IV classification, and these exceptions are made according to the severity of the client's substance abuse. In other words, exceptions to DSM-IV substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse/dependency classification can be determined by the severity of abuse. The severity of a client's substance abuse determines their recommended levels of intervention or treatment.
Driver Risk Scale: Measures driving risk independent of substance (alcohol and other drugs) use or abuse. Some people are simply dangerous drivers. These individuals would benefit from driver education and training. To adequately understand a DUI/DWI offender's driving risk, it is important to know their driver attitude and aggressiveness. It sounds obvious, yet NHTSA noted that no other major DUI/DWI offender test has a Driver Risk Scale.
Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well the DUI/DWI offender handles stress, tension and pressure. How a person handles stress can directly affect their driving safety. And, we now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. This scale is a non-introversive way to screen for established (diagnosable) mental health problems. A person scoring at or above the 90th percentile on the Stress Coping Abilities Scale should be referred to a certified mental health professional for a more comprehensive evaluation, diagnosis and treatment plan. This important area of inquiry is missed by other DUI/DWI tests.
More than just another alcohol or drug test: In addition to alcohol and drugs, the DRI-II assesses other important areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial, faking, driving safety and emotional/mental health problems. The DRI-II is specifically designed for DUI/DWI offender assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive DUI/DWI offender screening.
Three ways to give the DRI-II: The DRI-II can be administered in three different ways: 1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. DRI-II English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available. 2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen and clients can adjust the size of the print. Some agencies dedicate computers for DRI-II testing. 3. Human voice audio in English or Spanish is available. This involves a headset. The DUI/DWI offender uses the up-down arrow keys. As the client goes from question to answer with the arrow keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the monitor and concurrently read to the client. These three test administration modes are discussed in the DRI-II Orientation and Training Manual. Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.
This test is now available on our online testing platform, www.online-testing.com.
Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired DUI/DWI offenders represent 20+ percent of the offenders tested. This represents a serious problem to other DUI/DWI tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed two alternatives for dealing with this problem: 1. Human Voice Audio and 2. DRI-II Short Form.
Human Voice Audio: Presentations of the DRI-II and Short Form are in English and Spanish. DUI/DWI offenders' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for evaluating reading impaired DUI/DWI offenders.
DRI-II Short Form: Approximately 20+ percent of DUI/DWI offenders are reading impaired. The DRI-II Short Form offers a practical alternative for screening reading impaired individuals. It is also an alternative for high volume assessment settings. It augments the DRI-II and contains five measures (scales).
DRI-II Short Form scales correlate highly significantly with comparable DRI-II scales. Correlation coefficients between DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scales for 6,394 DUI/DWI offenders are:
|Driver Risk Scale||.93|
Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients demonstrate a very high correlation between DRI-II and comparable DRI-II Short Form scales. These correlation coefficients are so high that it is safe to conclude that DRI-II Short Form scales measure essentially the same attitudes/behaviors that are measured with the comparable DRI-II scales. A correlation coefficient of zero refers to no relationship between variables; whereas, a correlation coefficient of 1.0 refers to a perfect relationship or correlation. In the above table, DRI-II Short Form scale items were correlated against the DRI-II scales in this sample of DRI-II data. DRI-II Short Form scales are subsets of DRI-II scales (same or similar items are in both tests), and they are shown to be highly correlated with the DRI-II scales. Along with having fewer test items per scale, the DRI-II Short Form does not include the Stress Coping Abilities Scale. For DUI/DWI offender assessment, test users now have a choice: DRI-II or DRI-II Short Form.
If interested in the DRI-II Short Form, you can click on this DRI-II Short Form link. There are also links to the DRI-II Short Form on the "Tests Alphabetically Listed" and the "Tests Functionally Grouped" webpages.
Confidentiality: Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete DUI/DWI offender names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once client names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting client names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the DRI-II database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.
Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the DRI and DRI-II research has been gathered together in a 100+ page document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." This document summarizes DRI-II research chronologically - as the studies were completed. This chronological reporting format was established largely because of the DRI-II database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered. The "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings" document contains over one million DUI/DWI offenders DRI and DRI-II test data.
DRI-II CD Tutorial: Contains a Microsoft PowerPoint® presentation on the DRI-II. This tutorial can be used individually or in a group settings. It consists of six chapters: 1. DRI-II Installation, 2. Computer Training, 3. DRI-II Orientation, 4. DRI-II Training Manual, 5. DRI-II Research Article #1, 6. DRI-II Research Article #2. Users can go to the chapter that is of interest to them or, if desired, go through the entire tutorial. This tutorial can be used by staff at their computers and at their own pace. The DRI-II Tutorial can be purchased at a nominal fee.
Staff Training: Behavior Data Systems' staff are available to participate in DRI-II training programs conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour DRI-II training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring as desired. Attendees often receive continuing education credits (CEU's) for the time involved. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their DRI-II training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
The DRI-II meets and exceeds most DUI/DWI offender screening criteria. It is endorsed by users, courts, evaluators, peers, psychologists and is even incorporated in some state DUI statutes. It is widely used in the United States with over 135,000 DRI-II tests being administered yearly. There are over one million DUI/DWI offenders' test data in the DRI-II database. The DRI-II has been repeatedly demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. Ongoing research continues to study and adjust for demographics like age, gender and ethnicity (race).
The DRI-II's six scales measure truthfulness, classify substance abuse and dependency in accordance with DSM-IV criteria, quantify the severity of alcohol and drug abuse, and assess driver risk along with non-introversive quantification of stress coping abilities. Screening stress coping abilities allows identification of the presence of established (diagnosable) emotional and mental health problems.
The DRI-II's built-in database facilitates cost efficient database analysis and annual testing program summary (large agencies/departments and statewide programs) reports. These two unique features -- ongoing database analysis and annual summary reports -- are provided free.
DUI/DWI offenders' DRI-II reports are timely (available on-site in 2½ minutes), readable and easy to understand. Score-related recommendations are relevant. It's reasonable to conclude the DRI-II is the state-of-the-art in contemporary DUI/DWI offender assessment and screening. And, Behavior Data Systems doesn't stop there! The DRI-II is very affordable.
Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals with serious problems that may require referral for a more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:
DRI-II RISK RANGES
Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher. And, these risk range percentiles are based upon the hundreds of thousands of DUI/DWI offenders that have taken the Driver Risk Inventory-II. This procedure is eminently fair, and it avoids extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.
A state, department, court or agency policy might refer clients with identified problems for further evaluation, intervention or treatment. In this case, 31% of the people screened (Problem Risk and Severe Problem) would be referred. Or, policy might refer clients with serious problems (Severe Problems, 11%) for additional services. In these examples, either 69% or 89% (contingent upon adopted policy) of the people screened would not be referred for additional (and expensive) services.
Budgetary savings (dollars) would be large with no compromises in needy people receiving appropriate evaluation and/or treatment services. Indeed, more needy people would receive help. Without a screening program, there is usually more risk of over or under-utilization of additional professional services.
What users are saying ...
"If you're going to be selecting an instrument to be used to screen and assess DUI offenders, you'd want the current state of the art, and that's the Driver Risk Inventory."
Psychologist, Los Angeles, California
"I am extremely pleased with the Driver Risk Inventory and would recommend it to anyone in the market for a highly reliable, easy-to-use testing instrument."
Sloan Clinic - Springfield Central, Massachusetts
"This instrument (Driver Risk Inventory) appears to be by far the most carefully constructed from a psychometric standpoint. . . Of all the instruments reviewed, this test (DRI) is the most carefully constructed."
NHTSA, DOT HS 807 475
"The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center completed a major study comparing all existing tests for alcohol/drug dependency used for drinking - drivers. Their conclusion: Driver Risk Inventory was the best."
Government Technology, Volume 3, #5, May 1990
"We found the Driver Risk Inventory is very accurate. It has proven to be a great value at assisting us with our alcohol assessments for clients referred for DWI. I would recommend this test for any Tribal program that has a DWI school."
Laguna Service Center, New Mexico
"The Driver Risk Inventory (DRI) provides us a better understanding of our DUI population. The comprehensive DUI offender statistics and client profiles that the DRI provides are invaluable. . .. We are pleased with the DRI and with the responsiveness of Behavior Data Systems (BDS) to our program needs. BDS staff has worked closely with us to customize the DRI to our states needs. BDS has also been exceptionally responsive and cooperative in providing training, technical assistance and support services to our DUI providers throughout the state."
Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles
"Prior to selecting the Driver Risk Inventory for use in our program we conducted an exhaustive review of all available tests. I am very pleased that we selected the DRI."
President, Conway Groups, Ltd.
"The following advantages have been identified by the City of Phoenix Municipal Court in the use of the Driver Risk Inventory:
Phoenix Municipal Court
"Behavior Data Systems provides technological assistance, ongoing training, telephone support and other requested services. Their staff has been attentive to the needs of our program and this is evidenced by the positive comments we have received regarding the easy use of the instrument and the support they provide. We feel the Driver Risk Inventory in combination with a review of the driving record and the individual interview is a highly effective way of assuring that offenders will receive the proper level of education and/or rehabilitation they need."
Missouri, Department of Mental Health
"The Driver Risk Inventory has proved to be valuable among not only probation cases, but also with higher risk offenders. The DRI coupled with a personal interview and review of arrest records has proven to be an effective method of screening offenders. . . The ease of instructions, administration and screening are now simple tasks and the results are written in clear, concise terms with specific recommendations. These are results of value that enable us to provide a professional service to the public."
Oklahoma Department of Corrections
"The Phoenix Municipal Court's Substance Abuse Screening Service is well pleased with the Driver Risk Inventory for screening and assessment of court ordered DWI offenders. . . In a criminal justice agency documentation of objective criteria in assessment and classification of risk levels is of critical importance for all client records. The DRI has proven to be highly successful in accuracy and reliability of classification."
Phoenix Municipal Court, Criminal Division
"In settings where it has been adopted as the primary screening instrument for processing convicted drunk drivers, substance abuse counselors have reported that it (DRI) improves the quality of their decisions while making their task less time-intensive."
NHTSA, DOT HS 807 475
"Accurate ISP offender selection has been achieved by combining the strength of Nebraska Probation Departments existing risk and needs worksheet with selected criminal court history and an automated assessment instrument or test. One of the four tests used in this study was the Driver Risk Inventory-II. It was shown to accurately predict substance abuse, driver risk and stress coping abilities. . . These results strongly support the reliability, validity and accuracy of the DRI-II."
Perspectives, Volume 24, #4, Fall 2000
"The introduction of the DRI-II is an excellent example of how BDS continues to upgrade their product to provide a reliable and valid instrument. We find the DRI-II continues to remain an accurate screening instrument and an important component of our program."
Missouri Department of Mental Health
* * * * *
Test Unit Fee (Cost): DRI-II cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the Test Unit Fee (Cost) link. There is only the one cost or charge, and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost to the test user. This includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing database research, annual summary testing reports, staff training, and support services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' à la carte pricing like separate costs for each test administration as well as for each of the test-related items listed above. Instead of asking for the test administration cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a test. We believe Behavior Data Systems' one test unit fee is very affordable.
A 1-test DRI-II demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in Windows format. This free examination kit has a 1-test demo diskette, test booklet (reusable), an answer sheet (can photocopy), Installation CD (with instructions), an Orientation and Training Manual, One-Page Quick Start and some descriptive information. Behavior Data Systems does want the demonstration diskette and test booklet returned within 30 days.
If you are selecting a DUI/DWI offender assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the DRI-II.
|Designed Specifically for DUI/DWI Evaluation|
|Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided|
|Test Completed in 30 Minutes|
|On-Site Reports within 3 Minutes|
|Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking|
|Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy|
|Three Test Administration Options|
|1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish)|
|2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish)|
|3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish)|
|Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality)|
|HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant|
|Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy)|
|Available in English, Spanish and Russian|
|Built-in Database at No Additional Cost|
|Annual Database Research (Free)|
|Annual Testing Program Summary (Free)|
|Short Form for Reading Impaired|
|Alcohol and Drugs Scales|
|DSM-IV Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale|
|Driver Risk Scale|
|Stress Coping Abilities Scale|
|Large Research Database (over 1 million offenders)|
|Highly Rated by NHTSA|
|Easily Understood Reports|
|ASAM Compatible Recommendations|
|Staff Training (Free)|
|Examination Kits (Free)|
|Very Affordable Test Unit Fee|
An example 3-page Driver Risk Inventory-II, or DRI-II, report follows this discussion of DRI-II scale interpretation. The example report is provided as a ready reference to augment this dialogue. There are several levels of DRI-II interpretation ranging from viewing the DRI-II as a self-report to interpreting scale elevations and scale inter-relationships.
The following table is a starting point for interpreting DRI-II scale scores.
Referring to the above table, a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher. Elevated scale scores refer to percentile scores that are at or above the 70th percentile. Severe problems are identified by scale scores at or above the 90th percentile. Severe problems represent the highest 11 percent of DUI/DWI offenders evaluated with the DRI-II. The DRI-II has been normed on over one million DUI/DWI offenders. And this normative sample continues to expand with each DRI-II test that is administered.
1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the DUI/DWI offender was while completing the test. It identifies guarded and defensive people who attempt to fake good. Truthfulness Scale scores at or below the 89th percentile mean that all DRI-II scale scores are accurate. When the DRI-II Truthfulness Scale score is in the 70th to 89th percentile range, other DRI-II scale scores are accurate because they have been Truth-Corrected. In contrast, when the Truthfulness Scale score is at or above the 90th percentile, this means that all DRI-II scales are inaccurate (invalid) because the DUI/DWI offender or respondent was overly guarded, read things into test items that aren't there, was minimizing problems, or was caught faking answers. If not consciously deceptive, offenders with elevated Truthfulness Scale scores are uncooperative (likely in a passive-aggressive manner), fail to understand test items or have a need to appear in a good light. Truthfulness Scale scores at or below the 89th percentile mean that all other DRI-II scale scores are accurate. One of the first things to check when reviewing a DRI-II report is the Truthfulness Scale score.
2. Alcohol Scale: Measures alcohol use and the severity of abuse. Alcohol refers to beer, wine and other liquors. An elevated (70th to 89th percentile) Alcohol Scale is indicative of an emerging drinking problem. An Alcohol Scale score in the Severe Problem (90th to 100th percentile) range identifies established and serious drinking problems. Elevated Alcohol Scale scores do not occur by chance.
A history of alcohol problems (e.g., alcohol-related arrests, DUI/DWI convictions, etc.) could result in an abstainer (current non-drinker) attaining a Low to Medium Risk scale score. Consequently safeguards have been built into the DRI-II to identify "recovering alcoholics." For example, the offender's self-reported court history is summarized on the first page of the DRI-II report. And, on page 3 of the report, the DUI/DWI offender's multiple choice (items 119 to 140) answers are printed for easy reference. The DUI/DWI offender's answer to the "recovering alcoholic" question (item 138) is printed on page 3 of the DRI-II report. In addition elevated Alcohol Scale paragraphs caution staff to establish if the offender is a recovering alcoholic. If recovering, how long? Obviously, the DUI/DWI offender was arrested for a DUI or DWI.
Severely elevated Alcohol and Drugs Scale scores indicate polysubstance abuse and the highest score usually identifies the offender's substance of choice. Scores in the Severe Problem (90th to 100th percentile) range are a malignant prognostic sign. Elevated Alcohol Scale, Drugs Scale and Driver Risk Scale scores identify a particularly dangerous driver. Here, you have a person with poor driving skills who is even further impaired when drinking or using drugs.
In intervention and treatment settings, the offender's DRI-II Alcohol Scale score can help staff work through offender denial. More people accept objective standardized assessment results as opposed to someone's subjective opinion. This is especially true when it is explained that the DRI-II has been given to over one million DUI/DWI offenders and that elevated scores do not occur by chance. The Alcohol Scale can be interpreted independently or in combination with other DRI-II scales.
3. Drugs Scale: Measures drug use and severity of drug abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, ice, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin. An elevated (70th to 89th percentile) Drugs Scale score identifies emerging drug problems. A Drugs Scale score in the Severe Problem (90th to 100th percentile) range identifies established drug problems and drug abuse.
A history of drug-related problems (e.g., drug-related arrests, prior DUI/DWI convictions, drug treatment, etc.) could result in an abstainer (current non-user) attaining a Low to Medium Risk Drug Scale score. For this reason, precautions have been built into the DRI-II to insure correct identification of "recovering" drug abusers. Many of these precautions are similar to those discussed in the above Alcohol Scale description. And, the DUI/DWI offender's answer to the "recovering drug abuser" question (item 138) is printed on page 3 of the DRI-II report.
Concurrently elevated Drugs and Alcohol Scale scores are indications of polysubstance abuse, and the highest score reflects the offender's substance of choice. Very dangerous drivers are identified when both the Drugs Scale and the Driver Risk Scale are elevated. Any Drugs Scale score in the Severe Problem (90th to 100th percentile) range should be taken seriously. The Drugs Scale can be interpreted independently or in combination with other DRI-II scales.
4. Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale: Classifies DUI/DWI offenders as substance abusers, substance dependent or non-pathological substance users in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria.
The DRI-II Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale is entirely based on DSM-IV classification criteria for substance abuse and dependency. When a DUI/DWI offender admits to one of the four DSM-IV abuse symptoms (criteria), that offender is classified in the substance abuse category. When an offender admits to three of the seven DSM-IV dependency symptoms (criteria), that offender is classified in the substance dependency category. When an offender does not meet DSM-IV criteria for abuse or dependency, they are non-pathological substance users (if they use alcohol or drugs).
There is an important difference between the DRI-II Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale and the Alcohol and Drugs Scales. The Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale classifies people as abusers, dependent or non-pathological substance users (if they use alcohol or drugs). The Alcohol Scale and Drugs Scale measure the severity of alcohol and drug use or abuse.
The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) states there can be exceptions to DSM-IV classification, and these exceptions are made according to the severity of a person's substance abuse. The severity of a person's substance abuse determines their recommended level of intervention and/or treatment.
In summary, the Alcohol and Drugs Scales measure severity of substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse; whereas, the Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale classifies people as substance abusers or substance dependents. The Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale can be interpreted independently or in combination with DRI-II Alcohol and Drugs Scales.
5. Driver Risk Scale: Measures driving risk, e.g., aggressive, irresponsible or careless drivers. This scale is independent of the Alcohol, Drugs and Substance Abuse/Dependency Scales. Some people are simply poor drivers. Elevated (70th to 89th percentile) Driver Risk Scale scores identify problem prone drivers that would benefit from a driver improvement program. Severe Problem (90th to 100th percentile) scorers are simply dangerous drivers. These are high probability accident prone drivers. When the Driver Risk Scale and the Alcohol Scale and/or Drugs Scale are elevated, a person's poor driving abilities are further impaired by substance use or abuse. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which is the highest federal authority in the DUI/DWI field, the DRI-II is the only major DUI/DWI test that measures driver risk. Consequently, other tests do not identify abstaining (non-drinking and non-drug use) dangerous drivers.
The Driver Risk Scale provides considerable insight into offender driving behavior, but it is overlooked by other DUI/DWI tests. The Driver Risk Scale can be interpreted independently or in combination with the DRI-II Alcohol Scale, Drugs Scale and Stress Coping Abilities Scale.
6. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures the DUI/DWI offender's ability to cope effectively with stress, tension and pressure. How well a person manages stress affects their driving safety. A Stress Coping Abilities Scale score in the elevated (e.g., Problem Risk) range provides considerable insight into co-determinants while suggesting possible intervention programs like stress management. An offender scoring in the Severe Problem (90th to 100th percentile) range should be referred to a mental health specialist for further evaluation, diagnosis and a treatment plan.
We know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health problems. The Stress Coping Abilities Scale is a non-introversive way to screen for established (diagnosable) mental health problems. Stress coping problems can have a direct impact on a person's driving.
A particularly unstable and perilous driving situation involves an elevated Stress Coping Abilities Scale with an elevated Alcohol Scale, Drugs Scale or Driver Risk Scale. Poor driving abilities along with substance abuse in an emotionally reactive person who doesn't handle stress well operationally defines a dangerous driver. The higher the elevation of these scales, the worse the prognosis. The Stress Coping Abilities Scale can be interpreted independently or in combination with other DRI-II scales.
In conclusion, it was noted that several levels of DRI-II interpretation are possible. They range from viewing the DRI-II as a self-report to interpreting scale elevations and inter-relationships. Staff can then put a DUI/DWI offender's DRI-II findings within the context of the offenders driving situation.
The DRI-II Example Report is presented for your review. Each DRI-II report is organized around the same outline or format, yet these reports are highly individualized. Each report is 3 pages in length. And, all DRI-II reports are saved and printed within 2½ minutes on-site.
Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256.
Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227
and our e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.