The Offender Assessment Index (OAI)
is designed for use in drug courts, family courts, municipal courts and
county courts. It can be used to evaluate misdemeanor or felony charged
defendants. OAI reports are particularly useful at pre-sentence hearings.
The OAI consists of 158 items and
takes 35 minutes to complete. OAI's are scored on-site and reports printed
in 3 minutes. The OAI contains 7 measures (scales): Truthfulness Scale,
Resistance Scale, Violence Scale, Stress Coping Abilities Scale, Substance
Abuse/Dependency Scale, Alcohol Scale and the Drug's Scale.
SEVEN OAI SCALES
Truthfulness Scale: measures the truthfulness of the defendant
while completing the OAI. This Truthfulness Scale identifies faking.
Scale: measures client defensiveness, non-compliance and
oppositional behaviors. This scale varies directly with the client's
attitude, feelings and outlook.
Scale: measures a person's tendency to injure, damage or
destroy. Characterized by cruelty, use of excessive force, coercion
and brutality. The Violence Scale identifies dangerous people.
Coping Abilities Scale: measures a person's ability to cope
effectively with stress. Stress exacerbates emotional problems.
Abuse/Dependency Scale: utilizes DSM-IV criteria to classify
substance (alcohol or drugs) dependency and substance abuse. This is a
classification (not a measurement) scale.
Scale: measures the severity of alcohol use and related
problems. Alcohol refers to beer, wine and other liquor.
Scale: measures the severity of illicit drug (marijuana, crack,
cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin) use and related
Truthfulness (Validity) Scale: Measures how
truthful and open the client was while completing the Offender Assessment
Index. This scale identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. Many
troubled individuals attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness
Scale is a necessary component in contemporary assessment. The Offender
Assessment Index Truthfulness Scale has been validated with other tests,
truthfulness studies and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI) L and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most clients
agree or disagree with. This important scale has been demonstrated to be
reliable, valid and accurate.
Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be
very important in enhancing assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth
correction program is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction methodology.
The Offender Assessment Index Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the
other OAI scales. The Truth Correction equation then converts raw scores
to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than
raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the client wants you to know.
Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the client is trying to hide.
More than Just Another Alcohol or Drug Test.
In addition to alcohol and drugs, the Offender Assessment Index assesses other
important areas of inquiry like truthfulness, violence (lethality), distress,
adjustment and stress coping abilities. The Offender Assessment Index is designed
specifically for male and female assessment. It provides the information needed
for understanding attitudes and behavior.
Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired
clients represent 20+ percent of clients tested. This represents a serious
problem to many other tests. In contrast, Behavior Data Systems has
developed a proprietary alternative for reading impaired assessment, which
is termed "human voice audio."
Human Voice Audio: (in English or Spanish)
helps resolve many reading, along with cultural difference, issues. Passive
vocabularies are often greater than active vocabularies. Hearing items read
often helps reduce both cultural and communication problems. As discussed
earlier, "human voice audio" test presentation requires a computer, headphones
and simple instructions regarding how to operate the up-down arrow keys
located on the computer keyboard. Without this "human voice" option, a
screening program could be limited.
Confidentiality: Behavior Data Systems encourages
test users to delete names from diskettes before they are returned to
Behavior Data Systems. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few
keystrokes. Once names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be
retrieved. Deleting names does not delete demographics or test data,
which is downloaded into the Offender Assessment Index database for subsequent
analysis. This procedure insures confidentiality and compliance with
HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the Offender
Assessment Index research has been gathered together in one document titled "OAI: An
Inventory of Scientific Findings." This document summarizes OAI research
chronologically -- as the studies were completed.
This rather innovative chronological reporting format was established largely
because of the OAI database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests
administered. It also allows the reader to observe the evolution of the Offender
Assessment Index into a state-of-the-art assessment test.
Free Examination Kit: A 1-test demonstration diskette
is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The
Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions),
test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems,
Ltd. does want the test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.
Test Unit Fee (Cost): There is only the one cost or charge,
and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included in the test unit fee. The
test unit fee encompasses test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades,
ongoing database research, annual test program summaries, staff training and support
services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' à la carte pricing, which can
entail separate costs for test administration, manuals, upgrades, research, support
services, etc. Behavior Data Systems' test unit fee is very affordable. Click on the
Cost link to review the Offender Assessment Index (OAI) test
The Offender Assessment Index (OAI) scales measure important offender attitudinal
(resistance), problems (alcohol and drugs) and behavioral (violence) areas of inquiry.
The OAI simultaneously classifies substance abuse with DSM-IV criteria while measuring
alcohol and drug abuse severity. The Offender Assessment Index (OAI) is an adult
defendant test that is appropriate for misdemeanor and felony cases.
* * * * *
The Offender Assessment Index (OAI)
was designed in conjunction with experienced court staff. Behavior
Data Systems doctorate level psychologists and psychometrists also
incorporated municipal court and county court staff input into the OAI
Why include a Truthfulness Scale? It would be
naive to assume that defendants always tell the truth -- particularly in
court-related settings. Literature on defendant evaluations consistently
demonstrate that defendant's tend to minimize their problems and concerns.
And many defendants attempt to "fake good." The Truthfulness Scale detects
denial and faking.
2. Why include
the Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale? Classification as to
substance dependency, substance abuse, or non-pathological substance use
is related to levels of intervention and treatment. The Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) is the most widely accepted substance-related
classification procedure. That is why the Alcohol Scale and Drug Scale
utilize DSM-IV criteria for defendant substance-use classification.
Inclusion of the Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale greatly enhances OAI
substance use/abuse assessment classification, while providing a sound
rationale for intervention and treatment.
3. Why include
measures other than alcohol or drugs? Most experienced court or
probation staff want more than just alcohol and drug information. They
want to know if the defendant was telling the truth. And it is helpful to
assess antisocial tendencies as well as violence (lethality) potential. It
also helps to screen mental health problems in a non-introversive manner.
The OAI is much more than just an alcohol or drug test. It offers
comprehensive, yet efficient defendant screening. The OAI provides
information helpful to case adjudication and subsequent
4. Why is a
built-in database important? Behavior Data Systems proprietary
database technology allows ongoing research and testing program summaries
that were not possible before. Ongoing database research enhances accurate
assessment and quality control. And annual summary reports provide for
program self-evaluation. Ongoing research and annual testing program
summary reports are provided at no additional cost.
unique about the Offender Assessment Index? The OAI was designed
specifically for offender use. Multiple scales provide a comprehensive
understanding of defendants -- evaluating attitudes and behaviors missed
by other tests. The OAI is state-of-the-art and incorporates many
desirable features like incorporating DSM-IV criteria with ASAM compatible
recommendations. Other unique features include "test data input
verification," delete client names (confidentiality), easy to read
reports, reliable and valid results, accurate assessment, ongoing database
research, and free annual summary reports.
6. What do you
want to know about defendants before adjudication or sentencing?
The questions are many and include the following: Was the defendant
truthful? Does the defendant have a substance (alcohol or other drug)
abuse problem? Is the defendant potentially dangerous, violent or lethal?
Does the defendant have a resistant attitude? Where does the defendant
fit in the DSM-IV classification of substance dependency or abuse? Is it
likely that the defendant has identifiable emotional or mental health
problems? The Offender Assessment Index answers these questions and more.